|Special issue entitled: "Medical Psychology: The importanceof understanding psychological manifestations of medical issues" has been edited by|
It is the study and treatment of mental illness, emotional disturbances and abnormal behavior. Psychiatry is one of the oldest medical specialties, but is also one of the most exciting frontiers of medicine. Recent advances in the neurosciences have led to new technologies in the diagnosis and treatment of many of these illnesses. Psychiatrists use a variety of treatments, including psychotherapy, medication and other treatments.
It is the branch that specializes in the study, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of thinking, feeling and/or behavior affecting children, adolescents and their families. The adolescent psychiatrist uses the knowledge of biological, psychological, and social factors in working with patients. The adolescent psychiatrist makes a diagnosis based on the pattern of behavior and emotional symptoms, using a standardized set of diagnostic criteria such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV-TR) or the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10).
Also known as biopsychiatry. It aims to understand mental disorder in terms of the biological function of the nervous system. Biopsychiatry is that branch / speciality of medicine which deals with the study of biological function of the nervous system in mental disorders.
It includes depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder, affect millions of people around the world. Recent studies are helping scientists identify factors that increase the risk of developing a psychiatric disorder, including a person’s genetic makeup and exposure to early life stress or brain trauma. Researchers are also finding structural differences in brains of people with some psychiatric disorders. Without intervention, they can have devastating effects and interfere with daily life.
The uses of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the nervous system. It has two categories- structural imaging and functional imaging. Structural imaging, which deals with the structure of the nervous system and the diagnosis of gross (large scale) intracranial disease (such as tumor), and injury. Functional imaging, which is used to diagnose metabolic diseases and lesions on a finer scale (such as Alzheimer's disease) and also for neurological and cognitive psychology research and building brain-computer interfaces.
The branch of psychiatry that specializes in the study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of psychopathological disorders of children, adolescents, and their families, child and adolescent psychiatry encompasses the clinical investigation of phenomenology, biologic factors, psychosocial factors, genetic factors, demographic factors, environmental factors, history, and the response to interventions of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders. Child psychiatry includes medication to help control or minimize certain behaviors or thoughts.
Is a specialization in the diagnosis and the treatment of disorders of thinking, feeling and/or behavior affecting children, adolescents, and their families. A child and adolescent psychiatrist offers families the advantages of a medical education, the medical traditions of professional ethics, and medical responsibility for providing comprehensive care.
Changes in Emotion and Motivation – Depression, anxiety, irritability, suspiciousness, blunted, flat or inappropriate emotion, change in appetite, reduced energy and motivation. Changes in Thinking and Perception – Difficulties with concentration or attention, sense of alteration of self, others or the outside world (e.g. feeling that self or others have changed or are acting different in some way), strange ideas, unusual perceptual experiences (such as a reduction or greater intensity of smell, sound or color), delusions, hallucinations. Changes in Behavior – Sleep disturbance, social isolation or withdrawal, reduced ability to carry out work or other roles.
The combined treatment of psychiatric medication and psychotherapy has become the most common mode of psychiatric treatment in current practice,but current practice also includes widely ranging variety of other modalities. Treatment may be delivered on an inpatient or outpatient basis, depending on the severity of functional impairment or on other aspects of the disorder in question. Research and treatment within psychiatry, as a whole, are conducted on an interdisciplinary basis, sourcing an array of sub-specialties and theoretical approaches.t includes- Behavior Therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Cognitive Therapy, Group Psychotherapy or Group Therapy, Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT), Individual Psychotherapy see Psychotherapy, Inpatient Services, Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP), Pharmacotherapy, Psychiatric Evaluation, Psychoanalytic Treatment, Psychotherapy or Individual Psychotherapy.
psychotherapy is treatment of emotional, behavioral, personality, and psychiatric disorders based primarily on verbal or nonverbal communication and interventions with the patient, in contrast to treatments using chemical and physical measures. It consists of a series of techniques for treating mental health, emotional and some psychiatric disorders. Psychotherapy aims to increase the individual's sense of his/her own well-being
Psychological trauma is a type of damage to the psyche that occurs as a result of a traumatic event. A traumatic event involves a singular experience or enduring event or events that completely overwhelm the individual's ability to cope or integrate the ideas and emotions involved with that experience. It is a type of damage to the psyche that occurs as a result of a severely distressing event.
The term depression is often used to refer to any of several depressive disorders. A depressive disorder is not a passing blue mood but rather persistent feelings of sadness and worthlessness and a lack of desire to engage in formerly pleasurable activities. Depressive disorders are characterized by sadness severe enough or persistent enough to interfere with function and often by decreased interest or pleasure in activities. Exact cause is unknown but probably involves heredity, changes in neurotransmitter levels, altered neuroendocrine function, and psychosocial factors. Diagnosis is based on history. Treatment usually consists of drugs, psychotherapy, or both and sometimes electroconvulsive therapy.
It is formerly called as bipolar affective disorder and manic depression, is a mental illness that brings severe high and low moods and changes in sleep, energy, thinking and behavior. In bipolar disorder, the dramatic episodes of high and low moods do not follow a set pattern. People who have bipolar disorder can have periods in which they feel overly happy and energized and other periods of feeling very sad, hopeless, and sluggish. In between those periods, they usually feel normal. You can think of the highs and the lows as two "poles" of mood, which is why it's called "bipolar" disorder.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that generally appears in late adolescence or early adulthood - however, it can emerge at any time in life. It is a mental disorder often characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to recognize what is real. It is one of many brain diseases that may include delusions, loss of personality (flat affect), confusion, agitation, social withdrawal, psychosis, and bizarre behavior. Individuals with schizophrenia may hear voices that are not there. Some may be convinced that others are reading their minds, controlling how they think, or plotting against them. This can distress patients severely and persistently, making them withdrawn.
An anxiety disorder is a serious mental illness. Anxiety disorders are the most common of emotional disorders and affect more than 25 million Americans. Many forms and symptoms may include- overwhelming feelings of panic and fear, uncontrollable obsessive thoughts, Painful, intrusive memories, recurring nightmares and physical symptoms such as feeling sick to your stomach, “butterflies” in your stomach, heart pounding, startling easily, and muscle tension. Types of anxiety disorders are panic disorders and phobias.
It begins with delirium, followed by the syndromes of major NCD, mild NCD, and their etiological subtypes. Neurocognitive disorders including delirium, mild cognitive impairment and dementia are characterized by decline from a previously attained level of cognitive functioning. These disorders have diverse clinical characteristics and aetiologies, with Alzheimer disease, cerebrovascular disease, Lewy body disease, frontotemporal degeneration, traumatic brain injury, infections, and alcohol abuse representing common causes.
Dementia is a syndrome caused by brain cell death. Neurodegenerative disease is behind most dementias. The word dementia describes a set of symptoms that may include memory loss and difficulties with thinking, problem-solving or language. Dementia is caused when the brain is damaged by diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease or a series of strokes. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia but not all dementia is due to Alzheimer's.
Clinical psychiatry is a specialization in using clinical practices in the treatment of mental illnesses and disorders, including bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and addictions.It is a branch of psychology that specializes in both discovering new knowledge and in applying the art and science of psychology to people with emotional or behavioral disorders; subspecialties include clinical child psychology and pediatric psychology.
Post-traumatic stress (PTS) is a mental health condition that's triggered by a terrifying event - either experiencing it or witnessing it. Symptoms may include flashbacks, nightmares and severe anxiety, as well as uncontrollable thoughts about the event. It develops after a terrifying ordeal that involved physical harm or the threat of physical harm. The person who develops PTS may have been the one who was harmed, the harm may have happened to a loved one, or the person may have witnessed a harmful event that happened to loved ones or strangers.
Also known as geropsychiatry, psychogeriatrics or pschyhiatry of old age, deals with the study, prevention and treatment of mental disorders in humans with old age. Geriatric psychiatry mission is to improve the mental health and well-being of older adults through innovative translational neuroscience and health care services research, through the education and training of clinicians and future leaders in the field of geriatric mental health, and through direct patient care.
Suicidal behavior is any action that could cause a person to die, such as taking a drug overdose or crashing a car on purpose. Suicidal behavior includes three types of self-destructive acts: completed suicide, attempted suicide, and nonsuicidal self-injury. Thoughts and plans about suicide are called suicide ideation.it includes completed suicide, attempted suicide and non-suicidal self-injury.
A science or branch of learning, as psychology or sociology, that derives its concepts from observation of the behavior of living organisms.It is a scientific discipline, such as sociology, anthropology, or psychology, in which the actions and reactions of humans and animals are studied through observational and experimental methods. Behavioral science is the systematic analysis and investigation of human and animal behaviour through controlled and naturalistic observation, and disciplined scientific experimentation.
The word “trauma” is used to describe experiences or situations that are emotionally painful and distressing, and that overwhelm people’s ability to cope, leaving them powerless. Trauma has sometimes been defined in reference to circumstances that are outside the realm of normal human experience.it refers only to the event, not the reaction, and should be reserved for major events that are psychologically overwhelming for an individual.
The branch of psychiatry that deals with the relationship between social environment and mental illness. Social psychiatry combines a medical training and perspective with fields such as social anthropology, social psychology, cultural psychiatry, sociology and other disciplines relating to mental distress and disorder. It focuses on the interpersonal and cultural context of mental disorder and mental wellbeing.
The problems and consequences of illicit drug use and excessive alcohol use are an apparently universal and persistent source of concern for the media and public. Within addiction psychiatry you will work with individuals who have a range of addictions as well as, commonly, mental illness. It is a medical subspecialty within psychiatry that focuses on the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of people who are suffering from one or more disorders related to addiction. This may include disorders involving legal and illegal drugs, gambling, sex, food, and other impulse control disorders.
Psychiatry focusing on the detection, prevention, early treatment, and rehabilitation of patients with emotional disorders and social deviance as they develop in the community rather than as encountered one-on-one, in private practice, or at larger centralized psychiatric facilities; particular emphasis is placed on the social-interpersonal-environmental factors that contribute to mental illness.