"Aquaculture has been growing rapidly for food production in the last few decades. Several commercial fish species have been cultured intensively in narrow or enclosed spaces such as ponds, cages or tanks under overcrowding or high density leading to adversely affect the health of cultured fish with a potentially stressful environment and infectious diseases. The infectious disease-outbreaks have emerged as constraints for the development of aquaculture. Antibiotics and chemotherapeutics have been used to prevent or control bacterial infections in aquaculture for about 20 years. Unfortunately, the use of antibiotics for treatment is not successful and sustainable due to increase in antibiotic-resistant bacteria, negative effect on the indigenous microflora of juveniles or adult fish, and the accumulation of antibiotic residues in fish tissue and environment causing human and animal health issues.
Additional Aquaculture Research is needed to define the specific dosage rates and efficacy of various compounds for a variety of aquatic species and their pathogens and to decrease costs of the immunostimulants. It is expected that during coming years immunostimulants will find more application to make aquaculture sustainable. Therefore, immunostimulants may be an effective tool for controlling infectious diseases in aquaculture... Debtanu Barman, Aquaculture Health Management: A new Approach
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Last date updated on May, 2014