|Fermentation is a metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases and/or alcohol. It takes place in yeast and bacteria, but also in oxygen-starved muscle cells, as in the case of lactic acid fermentation. Fermentation is also used to define the bulk growth of microorganisms on a growth medium. French microbiologist Louis Pasteur is discovered fermentation and its microbial causes. The science of fermentation is known as zymology. Fermentation has been used by humans for the production of food and beverages. Fermentation is used for preservation in a process that produces lactic acid as found in such sour foods as pickled cucumbers, kimchi and yogurt, as well as for producing alcoholic beverages such as wine and beer.
Innovations are new idea, device or process. Innovations are the application of better solutions that meet new requirements, inarticulate needs or existing market needs. It is proficient through more effective products, processes, services, technologies, or new ideas that are readily available to markets, governments and society. Innovations are something original and novel, as a significant, new that breaks into the market or society.