|Fermentation is a metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases and/or alcohol. It takes place in yeast and bacteria, but also in oxygen-starved muscle cells, as in the case of lactic acid fermentation. Fermentation is also used to define the bulk growth of microorganisms on a growth medium. French microbiologist Louis Pasteur is discovered fermentation and its microbial causes. The science of fermentation is known as zymology. Fermentation has been used by humans for the production of food and beverages. Fermentation is used for preservation in a process that produces lactic acid as found in such sour foods as pickled cucumbers, kimchi and yogurt, as well as for producing alcoholic beverages such as wine and beer.
A journal is a periodical publication intended to further progress of science, usually by reporting new research. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals publish articles, reviews, editorials, short communications, letters, and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Journals contain articles that peer reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity. Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record.