|Fermentation is a metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases and/or alcohol. It takes place in yeast and bacteria, but also in oxygen-starved muscle cells, as in the case of lactic acid fermentation. Fermentation is also used to define the bulk growth of microorganisms on a growth medium. French microbiologist Louis Pasteur is discovered fermentation and its microbial causes. The science of fermentation is known as zymology. Fermentation has been used by humans for the production of food and beverages. Fermentation is used for preservation in a process that produces lactic acid as found in such sour foods as pickled cucumbers, kimchi and yogurt, as well as for producing alcoholic beverages such as wine and beer.
Scholarly peer review is the process of subjecting an author's scholarly work, research, or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field, before a paper describing this work is published in a journal. The work may be accepted, considered acceptable with revisions, or rejected. Peer review requires a community of experts in a given (narrowly defined) field, who are qualified and able to perform reasonably impartial review.