An Overview: Biological Organisms That Serves as Nanofactories for Metallic Nanoparticles Synthesis and Fungi Being the Most Appropriate
Nida Tabassum Khan*, Maham Jamil Khan, Jibran Jameel, Namra Jameel and Saad Umer Abdul Rheman
Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences and Informatics, Balochistan University of Information Technology Engineering and Management Sciences, (BUITEMS), Quetta, Pakistan
- *Corresponding Author:
- Khan NT
Department of Biotechnology
Life Sciences and Informatics, Balochistan
University of Information Technology Engineering and
Management Sciences, (BUITEMS), Quetta, Pakistan
Received date: March 08, 2017; Accepted date: April 20, 2017; Published date: April 26, 2017
Citation: Khan NT, Khan MJ, Jameel J, Jameel N, Rheman SUA (2017) An Overview: Biological Organisms That Serves as Nanofactories for Metallic
Nanoparticles Synthesis and Fungi Being the Most Appropriate. Bioceram Dev
Appl 7:101. doi:10.4172/2090-5025.1000101
Copyright: © 2017 Khan NT, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under
the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and
source are credited.
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Nanotechnology implies to the manipulation, reduction and fabrication of materials at nano scale. Nanoparticles, exhibiting distinct morphological characteristics which is quite different from their bulk form. In recent years nanoparticles have been produced by industries for commercial application having many benefits. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles attracts many researchers and industries to explore microorganisms such as Bacteria, Fungi, Algae etc as the perfect biological system for the assembly of different nanoparticles. Fungi being the most suitable as mycosynthesis is not only ecofriendly but also makes the downstream processing for product recovery much easier.
Bacteria; Algae; Fungi; Nanoparticles
Different metallic nanoparticles are designed by the transformation
of their bulk form in to nano scale , possessing unique properties with
various uses in different fields such as biotechnology, nanotechnology,
medicine, biochemistry and material engineering etc. . Further
many synthetic approaches being used for the fabrication of metallic
nanocrystals, bio-based green methods have been established because
it is not only environmental friendly but provides a clean and nonhazardous
way for the fabrication of metallic nano sized particles.
Bio-based amalgamation of nano particles using microorganisms as
nanofactories is an innovative green technology that promises scientific
benefits in future [3,4].
Microorganisms as bionanofactories
In recent years nanoparticles have been produced by industries
for commercial application having many benefits. Biosynthesis of
nanoparticles attracts many researchers and industries to explore
microorganisms as the perfect biological system for the production of
different nanoparticles. The metabolic activity of these microorganisms
enables the extra cellular or intracellular synthesis of nanoparticles
utilizing different mode of synthesis [5-8]. Microorganisms possess
the capability to minimize the toxicity of metal ions through bioreduction
or by the aggregation of non-soluble complexes with
metal ions to produce colloidal particles. In comparison, biologically
synthesized nanomaterials are more definite in size than the chemically
synthesized ones because of optimized growth of the crystal due to
steady reaction kinetics which reduces the overall investment involved
in nanoparticle synthesis. Not only reduction in the overall cost makes5
it less expensive process but also it is an eco- friendly method because it
does not apply poisonous chemicals that are expensive and harmful for
the environment as used in non-biological synthetic procedures that
produces nanoparticles of poor morphology. Therefore nanoparticles
of distinct morphology can be obtained through the optimization of
culture conditions using biological organisms .
An account of organisms responsible for nanoparticle
Different metal nanoparticles, such as iron, silver, silica, selenium,
gold, tellurium, platinum, quantum dots, lead, titanium, zirconium,
magnetite, palladium, and silver –gold alloy can be biosynthesised by viruses, bacteria, fungi, plants and actinomycetes . These organisms
possess metal ion reduction capabilities thus making them suitable to
be employed for synthesis of nanoparticles.
Bacteria in nanoparticle synthesis
Several bacterial species have been reported to produce
metallic nanoparticles of different types. For example Bacteria like
Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, Shewanella spp and Magnetospirillum
magnetotacticum produces iron oxide nanoparticles . In addition
Copper and Cadmium sulfate nanoparticles were produce by
photosynthetic bacteria of genus Serratia and Rhodobacter sphaeroides
respectively [12,13] while Escherichia coli is reported to produce
Cadmium nanocrystals .
Plants in nanoparticle synthesis
Not only bacteria but plants can also be used to produce
nanoparticles of different types. For example from Hordeum vulgare
(monocotyledonous) and Rumex acetosa (dicotyledonous) plants, iron
oxide nanoparticles were produced . In addition to that, Diopyros
kaki leaf extract is known for the green production of platinum nano
crystals , gold nanocrystals using Gnidia glauca flower extract ,
silver and gold nano crystals from Aloe Vera extract  and clove 
have been reported.
Algae in nanoparticle synthesis
Chlorella vulgaris, unicellular green algae that possess the capability
to produce crystalline metal nanoparticles at room temperature.
The hydroxyl groups in tyrosine subunits or the carboxyl groups in glutamine/aspartic subunits of the proteins present in the extract are
accountable for silver ion reduction and also aids in controlling the
definite size of nanosilver crystals .
Fungi in nanoparticle synthesis
From a total of 1.5 million species of fungi found on Earth about
seventy thousands species have been documented. According to a
recent study it was estimated that nearly 5.1 million fungal species are
found on Earth by the use of high-through put sequencing methods
. Selecting Fungi for mycofabrication purposes is the most pertinent
choice because of its high metal ion tolerance and bioaccumulation
capabilities . Intra or extracellular mycosynthesis of a number of
different metallic nanoparticles have been enlisted in Table 1 [23-74].
||CdSe quantum dots 
||Si, Ti 
||Usnic acid 
||Pleurotus sajor caju
||Penicillium strain J3
||Amylomyces rouxii KSU-09
||Aspergillus terreus CZR-1
Table 1: List of different metal nanoparticles produced by fungi.
Why fungi being the most appropriate?
Using fungal biomass or biomass extracts, for the production of
nanoparticles is more advantageous compared with other biological
methods because fungi, being abundant in nature can be easily isolated
by plating, serial dilutions and hyphal extraction. Culturing/subculturing
requires simple media nutrients and since they are totipotent
therefore spores or hyphae can be used to grow fungus to obtain pure
isolate after sub culturing [75,76]. Besides have the potential to be scaled
up for large-scale synthesis by producing large amounts of extracellular
enzymes which catalysis the heavy metal ions to produce the respective
metallic nanoparticle of definite size and shape. Myco-synthesis offers
simple downstream processing for product recovery with easy biomass
handling , thus making the whole process environmental friendly
and cost effective.
Among different biological organisms, Fungi serve as a prime
candidate for the production of different nanoparticles because of its
high tolerance towards metal ions with reduction capabilities. Above
all makes the downstream processing for product recovery easy.
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