|Public administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service. As a field of inquiry with a diverse scope its fundamental goal... is to advance management and policies so that government can function. Some of the various definitions which have been offered for the term are the management of public programs the translation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day and the study of government decision making, the analysis of the policies themselves, the various inputs that have produced them, and the inputs necessary to produce alternative policies. From the academic perspective, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) in the United States defines the study of public administration as A program that prepares individuals to serve as managers in the executive arm of local, state, and federal government and that focuses on the systematic study of executive organization and management. Includes instruction in the roles, development, and principles of public administration; the management of public policy executive-legislative relations; public budgetary processes and financial management; administrative law; public personnel management professional ethics; and research methods.
Innovations are new idea, device or process. Innovations are the application of better solutions that meet new requirements, inarticulated needs or existing market needs. It is proficient through more effective products, processes, services, technologies, or new ideas that are readily available to markets, governments and society. Innovations are something original and novel, as a significant, new that breaks into the market or society.
A journal is a periodical publication intended to further progress of science, usually by reporting new research. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals publish articles, reviews, editorials, short communications, letters, and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Journals contain articles that peer reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity. Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record.